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Fast facts on Sudan
 
 

 

Fast Facts On Sudan

 

Sudan DiversityLocated in northeast Africa, Sudan is the largest country on the continent. It is about a quarter of the size of the United states (2,505,813 sq km), making it the 10th largest country in the world according to the World Factbook. With the Red Sea taking up approximately 853 km of its northeastern border, other Sudanese neighbors include: Central African Republic, Chad , Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, Libya, and Uganda.

           

A vast desert prone to dust storms and periodic draughts despite the presence of the Nile, which runs from north to south, dominates the northern portion of the country. Meanwhile, the southern region enjoys a more tropical clime and is peppered with mountains in contrast to the northern plains. 

Geography
Location:

            Northern Africa, bordering the Red Sea, between Egypt and Eritrea


Geographic coordinates:

            15 00 N, 30 00 E


Area:

            total: 2,505,813 sq km

            country comparison to the world: 10

            land: 2.376 million sq km

            water: 129,813 sq km


Area - comparative:


            slightly more than one-quarter the size of the US

Land boundaries:

            total: 7,687 km

            border countries: Central African Republic 1,165 km, Chad 1,360 km, Democratic Republic of             the Congo 628 km, Egypt 1,273 km, Eritrea 605 km, Ethiopia 1,606 km, Kenya 232 km, Libya                383 km, Uganda 435 km

 
Coastline:

            853 km


Maritime claims:

            territorial sea: 12 nm

            contiguous zone: 18 nm

            continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation


Climate:

            tropical in south; arid desert in north; rainy season varies by region (April to November)


Terrain:


            generally flat, featureless plain; mountains in far south, northeast and west; desert dominates the north

 
Elevation extremes:

            lowest point: Red Sea 0 m

            highest point: Kinyeti 3,187 m

 
Natural resources:

            petroleum; small reserves of iron ore, copper, chromium ore, zinc, tungsten, mica, silver, gold,    hydropower

 
Land use:

            arable land: 6.78%

            permanent crops: 0.17%

            other: 93.05% (2005)

 
Irrigated land:

            18,630 sq km (2003)

 
Total renewable water resources:

            154 cu km (1997)

 
Freshwater withdrawal (domestic/industrial/agricultural):

            total: 37.32 cu km/yr (3%/1%/97%)    

            per capita: 1,030 cu m/yr (2000

Natural hazards:

            dust storms and periodic persistent droughts

 
Environment - current issues

            inadequate supplies of potable water; wildlife populations threatened by excessive hunting; soil   erosion; desertification; periodic drought

Environment - international agreements:

            party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification,           Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlan  signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreement

Geography - note:  

            largest country in Africa; dominated by the Nile and its tributaries

People
Population:

            41,980,182 (July 2010 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 29

Age structure:

 

            0-14 years: 40.2% (male 8,622,902/female 8,255,839)

            15-64 years: 57.2% (male 12,092,278/female 11,938,793)

            65 years and over: 2.5% (male 547,444/female 522,926) (2010 est.)

 
Median age:

            total: 19.3 years

            male: 19.1 years

            female: 19.5 years (2010 est.)

 
Population growth rate:

            2.154% (2010 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 42

Birth rate:

            33.25 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 41


Death rate:

            12.3 deaths/1,000 population (July 2010 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 29


Net migration rate:

            0.59 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2010 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 57


Urbanization:

            urban population: 43% of total population (2008)

            rate of urbanization: 4.3% annual rate of change (2005-10 est.)


Sex ratio:

            at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female

            under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female

            15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female

            65 years and over: 1.05 male(s)/female

            total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2010 est.)


Infant mortality rate:

            total: 78.1 deaths/1,000 live births


            country comparison to the world: 18

            male: 78.1 deaths/1,000 live births

            female: 78.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2010 est.)


Life expectancy at birth:

            total population: 52.52 years

            country comparison to the world: 207

            male: 51.56 years

            female: 53.54 years (2010 est.)

 
Total fertility rate:

            4.37 children born/woman (2010 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 38


HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:

            1.4% (2007 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 45


HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:

            320,000 (2007 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 22


HIV/AIDS - deaths:


            25,000 (2007 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 19

 

Major infectious diseases:


            degree of risk: very high

            food or waterborne diseases: bacterial and protozoal diarrhea, hepatitis A and E, and typhoid     fever

            vectorborne diseases: malaria, dengue fever, African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)

            water contact disease: schistosomiasis

            respiratory disease: meningococcal meningitis

            animal contact disease: rabies

            note: highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza has been identified in this country; it poses a         negligible risk with extremely rare cases possible among US citizens who have close contact           with birds (2009)


Nationality:

            noun: Sudanese (singular and plural)

            adjective: Sudanese


Ethnic groups:

            black 52%, Arab 39%, Beja 6%, foreigners 2%, other 1%

Religions:

            Sunni Muslim 70% (in north), Christian 5% (mostly in south and Khartoum), indigenous beliefs   25%


Languages:


            Arabic (official), English (official), Nubian, Ta Bedawie, diverse dialects of Nilotic, Nilo-            Hamitic, Sudanic languages

            note: program of "Arabization" in process


Literacy:

            definition: age 15 and over can read and write

            total population: 61.1%

            male: 71.8%

            female: 50.5% (2003 est.)

 
Education expenditures:

            6% of GDP (1991)

            country comparison to the world: 42

Government

 

conventional long form: Republic of the Sudan

conventional short form: Sudan

local long form: Jumhuriyat as-Sudan

local short form: As-Sudan

former: Anglo-Egyptian Sudan

 

Government type:

            Government of National Unity (GNU) - the National Congress Party (NCP) and Sudan People's           Liberation Movement (SPLM) formed a power-sharing government under the 2005          Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA); the NCP, which came to power by military coup in        1989, is the majority partner; the agreement stipulated national elections in 2009, but these were           subsequently rescheduled for April 2010

 
Capital:

            name: Khartoum

            geographic coordinates: 15 36 N, 32 32 E

            time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

 
Administrative divisions:

            25 states (wilayat, singular - wilayah); A'ali an Nil (Upper Nile), Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea),    Al Buhayrat (Lakes), Al Jazira (Gezira), Al Khartoum (Khartoum), Al Qadarif (Gedaref), Al             Wahda (Unity), An Nil al Abyad (White Nile), An Nil al Azraq (Blue Nile), Ash Shimaliyya          (Northern), Bahr al Jabal (Central Equatoria), Gharb al Istiwa'iyya (Western Equatoria), Gharb             Bahr al Ghazal (Western Bahr el Ghazal), Gharb Darfur (Western Darfur), Janub Darfur     (Southern Darfur), Janub Kurdufan (Southern Kordofan), Junqoley (Jonglei), Kassala (Kassala),             Nahr an Nil (River Nile), Shimal Bahr al Ghazal (Northern Bahr el Ghazal), Shimal Darfur          (Northern Darfur), Shimal Kurdufan (Northern Kordofan), Sharq al Istiwa'iyya (Eastern     Equatoria), Sinnar (Sinnar), Warab (Warab)

 

Independence:


            1 January 1956 (from Egypt and the UK)

 

National holiday:


            Independence Day, 1 January (1956)

 
Constitution:

            Interim National Constitution ratified 5 July 2005

            note: under the Comprehensive Peace Agreement, the Interim National Constitution was ratified            5 July 2005; Constitution of Southern Sudan was signed December 2005

 
Legal system:

            The legal system of Sudan is based on the English common law as well as Islamic law. On          January 20, 1991 the Revolutionary Command Council (now defunct) imposed Islamic law on      the northern states. While Islamic law now applies to all residents of these northern states   regardless of religion the CPA has some protections in place for non-Muslims in Khartoum.   There are also some separate religious courts. The southern legal system is still developing             following the civil war, however, Islamic law will not apply to these states.


Suffrage:

            17 years of age; universal

Executive branch:

            chief of state: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

            head of government: President Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR (since 16 October 1993)

            cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president; note - the National Congress Party or NCP (formerly the National Islamic Front or NIF) dominates al-BASHIR's cabinet

 

            elections: election on 11-15 April 2010; next to be held in 2015

            election results: Umar Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR reelected president; percent of vote - Umar   Hassan Ahmad al-BASHIR 68.2%, Yasir ARMAN 21.7%, Abdullah Deng NHIAL 3.9%, others 6.2%

 

            note: al-BASHIR assumed power as chairman of Sudan's Revolutionary Command Council for            National Salvation (RCC) in June 1989 and served concurrently as chief of state, chairman of      the RCC, prime minister, and minister of defense until mid-October 1993 when he was                      appointed president by the RCC; he was elected president by popular vote for the first time in      March 1996


 Legislative branch:

            bicameral National Legislature consists of a Council of States (50 seats; members indirectly       elected by state legislatures to serve six-year terms) and a National Assembly (450 seats; 60%   from geographic constituencies, 25% from a women's list, and 15% from party lists; members           to serve six-year terms)

 

            elections: last held on 11-15 April 2010 (next to be held in 2016)

            election results: Not available; prior to the 11-15 April 2010 election, members appointmented   under the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement


 Judicial branch:

            Constitutional Court of nine justices; National Supreme Court; National Courts of Appeal; other            national courts; National Judicial Service Commission will undertake overall management of        the National Judiciary

Political parties and leaders:

            Democratic Unionist Party or DUP [Hatim al-SIR]; National Congress Party or NCP [Umar     Hassan al-BASHIR]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI]; Sudan People's        Liberation Movement or SPLM [Salva KIIR]; elements of the National Democratic Alliance or   NDA including factions of the Democratic Union Party [Muhammad Uthman al-MIRGHANI] and Umma Party

Political pressure groups and leaders:

            Umma Party [SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan al-TURABI];           Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM [Khalil IBRAHIM]            and the Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM [various factional leaders]


International organization participation:

            ABEDA, ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO,      ICCt (signatory), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC,     IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAS, MIGA, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNCTAD,          UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO   (observer)

Diplomatic representation in the US:

            chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Akec Khoc ACIEW Khoc

            chancery: 2210 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008

            telephone: [1] (202) 338-8565

            FAX: [1] (202) 667-2406

 
Diplomatic representation from the US:

            chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Robert E. WHITEHEAD

            embassy: Sharia Ali Abdul Latif Street, Khartoum

            mailing address: P.O. Box 699, Khartoum; APO AE 09829

            telephone: [249] (183) 774700 through 704

            FAX: [249] (183) 774137

 
Flag description:

            The Sudanese flag is comprised of three equal bands which read from top to bottom: red (signifying the struggle and blood spilled in the course of freedom), white (signifying peace, light and love) and black (representative of Sudan itself). On top of these on the hoisted side is a green isosceles triangle (symbolizing Islam, agriculture and prosperity). The colors of the flag, as well as the design, is based on the flag of the Arab Revolt of WWI.

Economy
Economy - overview:

            Increases in oil production as well as high oil prices and large inflows of foreign direct investment caused the Sudan's economy to boom until the second half of 2008. During 2006 and 2007 the GDP growth registered more than 10% per year. Since 1997, Sudan has been actively working to implement macroeconomic reforms with the IMF. This includes a managed float of the exchange rate.

It wasn't until the last quarter of 1999 that the Sudan began exporting crude oil. Meanwhile, agricultural production remains an important part of the economy because it employs roughly 80% of the work force and constitutes a third of the GDP. It is because of this large reliance upon agriculture as well as a basic lack of infrastructure, two decades of civil war and the Darfur conflict that much of the population remains below the poverty line in spite of rises in the average per capita income. In January 2007, the government introduced a new currency, the Sudanese Pound, at an initial exchange rate of $1.00 equals 2 Sudanese Pounds.

 

 

GDP (purchasing power parity):


            $92.81 billion (2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 71

            $89.41 billion (2008 est.)

            $83.87 billion (2007 est.)

            note: data are in 2009 US dollars


GDP (official exchange rate):

            $54.93 billion (2009 est.)

 
GDP - real growth rate:

            3.8% (2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 44

            6.6% (2008 est.)

            10.2% (2007 est.)

 
GDP - per capita (PPP):

            $2,300 (2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 181

            $2,200 (2008 est.)

            $2,100 (2007 est.)

            note: data are in 2009 US dollars


GDP - composition by sector:

            agriculture: 32.6%

            industry: 29.2%

            services: 38.2% (2009 est.)


Labor force:

            11.92 million (2007 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 42


Labor force - by occupation:

            agriculture: 80%

            industry: 7%

            services: 13% (1998 est.)


Unemployment rate:

            18.7% (2002 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 162

Population below poverty line:

            40% (2004 est.)


Household income or consumption by percentage share:

            lowest 10%: NA%

            highest 10%: NA%


Investment (gross fixed):

            20.6% of GDP (2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 83


Budget:

            revenues: $9.046 billion

            expenditures: $10.83 billion (2009 est.)

 

Public debt:


            104.5% of GDP (2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 9

            100% of GDP (2008 est.)


Inflation rate (consumer prices):

            12.3% (2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 203

            14.3% (2008 est.)

Stock of money:

            $NA (31 December 2008)

            $5.549 billion (31 December 2007)

Stock of quasi money:

            $NA (31 December 2008)

            $4.068 billion (31 December 2007)


Stock of domestic credit:

            $NA (31 December 2008)

            $8.659 billion (31 December 2007)


Market value of publicly traded shares:

            $NA

 

Agriculture - products:


            cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), sorghum, millet, wheat, gum arabic, sugarcane, cassava (tapioca),             mangos, papaya, bananas, sweet potatoes, sesame; sheep, livestock

Industries:

            oil, cotton ginning, textiles, cement, edible oils, sugar, soap distilling, shoes, petroleum refining,    pharmaceuticals, armaments, automobile/light truck assembly

 

Industrial production growth rate:


            2.1% (2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 50

Electricity - production:

            4.341 billion kWh (2007 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 116

Electricity - consumption:

            3.438 billion kWh (2007 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 121


Electricity - exports:

            0 kWh (2008 est.)


Electricity - imports:

            0 kWh (2008 est.)


Oil - production:

            480,200 bbl/day (2008 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 33


Oil - consumption:


            86,000 bbl/day (2008 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 82

 

Oil - exports:

            303,800 bbl/day (2007 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 40


Oil - imports:


            11,400 bbl/day (2007 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 136

Oil - proved reserves:

            5 billion bbl (1 January 2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 24

Natural gas - production:

            0 cu m (2008 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 129


Natural gas - consumption:


            0 cu m (2008 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 134

 

Natural gas - exports:


            0 cu m (2008 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 112


Natural gas - imports:


            0 cu m (2008 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 132

Natural gas - proved reserves:

            84.95 billion cu m (1 January 2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 57


Current account balance:


            $-2.739 billion (2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 158

            $-1.314 billion (2008 est.)

Exports:

            $8.464 billion (2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 85

            $11.67 billion (2008 est.)

Exports - commodities:

            oil and petroleum products; cotton, sesame, livestock, groundnuts, gum arabic, sugar


Exports - partners:

            China 48%, Japan 32.2%, Indonesia 5.3% (2008)

Imports:

            $6.823 billion (2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 99

            $8.229 billion (2008 est.)


Imports - commodities:

            foodstuffs, manufactured goods, refinery and transport equipment, medicines and chemicals,      textiles, wheat

 
Imports - partners:

            China 20.3%, Saudi Arabia 8.5%, UAE 6.3%, Egypt 5.6%, India 5.1%, Italy 4.1% (2008)

Reserves of foreign exchange and gold:

            $769 million (31 December 2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 114

            $1.399 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Debt - external:

            $36.27 billion (31 December 2009 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 56

            $33.72 billion (31 December 2008 est.)

Exchange rates:

            Sudanese pounds (SDG) per US dollar - 2.34 (2009), 2.1 (2008), 2.06 (2007), 2.172 (2006),            2.4361 (2005)

 

note: in January 2007 Sudan re-denominated its currency by transforming 100 units of Sudanese dinar into one unit of Sudanese pound

 Communication
Telephones - main lines in use:

            356,100 (2008)

            country comparison to the world: 110


 Telephones - mobile cellular:

            11.186 million (2008)

            country comparison to the world: 55

Telephone system:

            general assessment: well-equipped system by regional standards and being upgraded; cellular                 communications started in 1996 and have expanded substantially with wide coverage of most     major cities

            domestic: consists of microwave radio relay, cable, fiber optic, radiotelephone communications,             tropospheric scatter, and a domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations

            international: country code - 249; linked to international submarine cable Fiber-Optic Link         Around the Globe (FLAG); satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Arabsat (2000)

Radio broadcast stations:

            AM 12, FM 1, shortwave 1 (1998)

Television broadcast stations:

            3 (1997)

Internet country code:

            .sd

 
Internet hosts:

            48 (2009)

            country comparison to the world: 207

Internet users:

            4.2 million (2008)

            country comparison to the world: 48

Transportation

 

Airports:


            121 (2009)

            country comparison to the world: 49

 

Airports - with paved runways:

            total: 19

            over 3,047 m: 3

            2,438 to 3,047 m: 9

            1,524 to 2,437 m: 5

            under 914 m: 2 (2009)

Airports - with unpaved runways:

 

Airports - with unpaved runways:

            total: 102

            1,524 to 2,437 m: 18

            914 to 1,523 m: 56

            under 914 m: 28 (2009)

Heliports:

            4 (2009)

Pipelines:

            gas 156 km; oil 4,070 km; refined products 1,613 km (2009)

 

Railways:

            total: 5,978 km

            country comparison to the world: 30

            narrow gauge: 4,578 km 1.067-m gauge; 1,400 km 0.600-m gauge for cotton plantations (2008)

 

Roadways:

            total: 11,900 km

            country comparison to the world: 132

            paved: 4,320 km

            unpaved: 7,580 km (2000)

Waterways:

            4,068 km (1,723 km open year round on White and Blue Nile rivers) (2008)

            country comparison to the world: 25

Merchant marine:

            total: 3

            country comparison to the world: 139

            by type: cargo 2, carrier 1 (2008)

Ports and terminals:

            Port Sudan

 

Military

 

Military branches:

            Sudanese Armed Forces (SAF): Land Forces, Navy (includes Marines), Sudanese Air Force    (Sikakh al-Jawwiya as-Sudaniya), Popular Defense Forces; Sudan People's Liberation Army           (SPLA): Popular Army, Air Force (2009)

 
Military service age and obligation:

            18-33 years of age for male and female compulsory and voluntary military service; 12-24          month service obligation (2009)

Manpower available for military service:

            males age 16-49: 10,264,087

            females age 16-49: 9,894,457 (2010 est.)

 
Manpower fit for military service:

            males age 16-49: 6,094,209

            females age 16-49: 6,213,984 (2010 est.)

 
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually:

            male: 506,742

            female: 487,434 (2010 est.)

 
Military expenditures:

            3% of GDP (2005 est.)

            country comparison to the world: 48



 
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